Methylglyoxal and advanced glycation endproducts: new therapeutic horizons?
Desai K, Wu L.
Department of Pharmacology,
College of Medicine,
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Recent Patents Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 2007 Jun;2(2):89-99.


Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are unavoidable byproducts of various metabolic pathways. They are formed by reactive metabolic intermediates such as methylglyoxal (MG), glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone. These reactive intermediates bind to proteins, DNA, and other molecules and disrupt their structures and functions, which leads to different diseases such as vascular complications of diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and aging. In recent years, more compounds that prevent the formation of AGEs or degrade the existing AGEs have been produced and patented. They include: 1) aminoguanidine, 2) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes such as metformin and pioglitazone (patented), 3) angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 4) pentoxyfylline (patented), 5) metal ion chelators desferoxamine and penicillamine, 6) antioxidants such as vitamin C or E, 7) amino group capping agents such as aspirin, 8) enzymes that cause deglycation of Amadori products, the Amadoriases, 9) compounds that mostly break alpha-dicarbonyl cross-links such as phenacylthiazolium bromide and its stable derivative ALT-711 (Alagebrium), and 10) derivatives of aryl ureido and aryl carboxaminido phenoxy isobutyric acids (patented). While some of these anti-AGE compounds are being used in clinical practice (such as metformin, pioglitazone, pentoxyfylline and aspirin) or tested in clinical trials (such as aminoguanidine and ALT-711), most of them are commonly used as experimental tools to investigate the role of AGEs in different disease conditions.

Male longevity
Caloric restriction
Intermittent fasting
Antiaging medicine?
Antiaging treatments
Mitochondrial enzymes
Antagonistic pleiotropy
Caloric restriction mimetics
Cryonics/negligible senescence
Lifespan-extending interventions
CR/age-related oxidative damage
Occupational success and longevity
Does resveratrol enhance longevity?
Insulin/IGF-like signalling/CNS/aging
Resveratrol and vertebrate lifespan (PDF)
Extracellular glycation crosslinks: removal prospects

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family